First the most defining characteristic of a Victoria Sponge cake is it NOT a sponge cake.
A sponge cake is a foam cake, it’s leavened with egg whites, not chemical learners (baking powder and/or baking soda).
The Victoria Sponge is a shortened cake, more frequently referred to as a butter cake. It’s leavened with baking powder.
The other distinguishing characteristic of the Victoria Sponge is it’s a butter pound cake. It always made with equal parts by weight of flour, butter, sugar, and eggs.
Despite people posting recipes of Queen cake that are exactly the same as Victoria Sponge they are completely different.
A Queen cake is the same butter pound cake base batter as the Victoria Sponge, but that’s the only thing they have in common.
The Queen cake batter is then flavored with orange water or rose water. The flavors vary by country. My grandfather’s family was from Belgium. When he took me there, the Queen cakes in Brussels were almond flavored. Currants are also usually added to Queen cake batter. Victoria Sponge is never flavored and never have dried fruit added. So those are major differences right there.
A Queen cake is also a small individual cake, baked in a tin similar to a muffin tin, but they are flat like a cake, not muffin shaped. So that’s another distinguishing difference between a Victoria Sponge and a Queen cake. The Victoria Sponge is a layer cake meant to serve a group, and a Queen cake is a simple individual cake to serve one.