Trimoline is brand name, but it has been used so much that it’s become synonymous with invert sugar. So pastry chefs just say trimoline when they refer to invert sugar because it’s simple and everyone knows what you mean.
An invert sugar by definition is the disaccharide sucrose that has been split into two separate monosaccharides: glucose and fructose. It doesn’t matter what else is present in the solution. And it doesn’t matter if the glucose and fructose is in equal amounts. The only thing that matters is the sucrose disaccharide and its separation.
I don’t think we come close to inverting much of the sugar at home. But I don’t think it really matters since most commercially produced invert sugars are between 30% - 60% inverted (see links below for typical invert sugars).
It’s impossible to know how much sugar is inverted when we make it at home. But I am sure it’s now where near a medium invert sugar. Even measuring it in commercial production takes some doing. They use an instrument called a polarimeter. Essentially they look though the sugar solution using light and two filters. One filter is polarized, so when the light shines through the sugar solution, the more sugar molecules that are inverted, the more it blocks the light from passing through the filter. Inversion is considered compete when the sugar solution observed through the polarimeter has the opposite direction of optical rotation of -12.7° (see link below How a polarimeter works). BWT, it is the measurement of the optical rotation that gives invert sugar it’s name.
The fact that homemade invert sugar re-crystalizes in about 3 weeks to a month means it’s not highly inverted sugar. CK Products in the US repackages a lot of commercial products for the home baker. They sell 2 oz bottles of invertase (enzyme) used in commercial production of invert sugar. But I am not sure how to use it.
First let me say this, yes, you can absolutely substitute corn syrup for glucose.
Here’s the problem with her table of molecules: there’s no context. She left out the most important element of the discussion: Relative Sweetness.
A discussion about invert sugar molecules without discussing Relative Sweetness Factors makes no sense because there is no context. It’s like talking about all the types of clouds, but not mentioning a word about rain or weather.
So to put things in context and to answer your questions about substitutions and the difference between HFCS and glucose, we have to look at the relative sweetness.
Fructose and glucose have different relative sweetness. Fructose has a higher relative sweetness. But, the operative word is relative sweetness.
You can’t say definitively that there’s a substitution of 1:1 or 1:.25 between this invert sugar and that one because it comes down to relative sweetness.
All sugars are measured against sucrose (granulated table sugar).
Sucrose has a Relative Sweetness of 100.
But sweetness is relative—it changes. I’m sure you saw this coming with the phrase Relative Sweetness. So don’t be surprised if you see charts out there with different factors. The factors will change depending on the percentage of the solution used to measure the relative sweetness factor. It will change with the temperature.
The chart that I posted below was based on a 15% solution.
The type of sugar starch is also very important. Again we’re looking at the molecular structure, amount of solids, and the solution. That’s where the chart from your cookbook would be helpful if it also included a column with relative sweetness factors.
I don’t know specifically about glucose’s range. I do know with HFSC changes in relative sweetness happen at 5°C and 60°C.
At 5°C fructopyranose is dominate. So it has a relative sweetness factor of 140% of sucrose.
At 60°C fructofuranose dominates, so the relative sweetness factor declines to about 79% of sucrose.
In baking, heat is going to happen. So a particular HFCS may have a high relative sweetness factor, but it will lose some of it in the bake.
Keep in mind that glucose is chemically identical to dextrose, and you’ll often see it listed as dextrose not glucose.
When you see corn syrup listed as DE, that stands for Dextrose Equivalent. This does NOT mean it is a dupe for glucose. Rather, it is a measure of the reducing sugars in the syrup. Reducing sugar levels are important because among other things, they react with amino acids to trigger the Maillard reactions that produce both color and aromas.
Depending on the corn syrup being used you’ll see from the chart below that HFCS has a relative sweetness much higher than dextrose (glucose). Retail corn syrup is essentially a HFCS. They can be substituted. The the amount will depend on the relative sweetness.
For commercial baking they make a variety of corn syrups with much lower Relative Sweetness (see link below).
When you substitute one invert sugar syrup for another, you really have to know the relative sweetness. You can’t go by what people say you should or shouldn’t do. You have to know the differences between the products.
There is one caveat. The one time that you really have to check the specs thoroughly is for ice cream. Invert sugars are used in ice cream because changes the freezing temperature of water. But it’s critical that the right invert sugar is used. There’s a ton of cons and only a few pros to sugars in ice cream. So you really need to know the sugar science when making ice cream.
Chart of Relative Sweetness of different invert sugars in a 15% solution. FYI, dextrose is the same as glucose. Keep in mind this is just one chart. I can’t remember, but I think this came from an science book on industrial corn product production methods.
DE acid-converted CSU stands for Dextrose equivalent acid converted corn syrup unmixed. The number in front indicates how sweet the corn syrup is; the higher the number the sweeter the syrup. 42 DE has approximately half the sweetness of sucrose (table sugar); 63 DE is about 70%; 100 DE with is pure dextrose, is only 80% the sweetness of sucrose.
Brix is the measurement system used to measure sucrose in an aqueous solution. Brix is most commonly associated with wine (there’s a restaurant in the Valley here called Brix). But brix is also used in the sugar, maple syrup, honey, and even the beverage industries. Brix is 1 g sucrose to 100 g of solution and represents the solution as a percentage of mass.
These are examples of Domino Brands commercial invert sugars. Dominos owns C&H sugar as well. They are top brands both in retail and commercial food industry in the US. Notice even Domino uses a take on the word trimoline for their invert sugar.
Domino Sugars Nulomoline #11 is a low color high solids Medium Invert Syrup.
- 76.5 Bx
- 40.5% invert (on a dry basis)
Unknown is percentage of sucrose
Domino Sugars Type 50 is a low color high solids Medium invert Syrup.
-50% invert (on a dry basis)
Unknown is percentage of sucrose
These are the refiners (golden) syrups. Even though the sucrose is not listed for Domino’s sugar syrups, I can tell you they have a higher percentage of sucrose than the refiner syrups. But the refiner syrups are invert sugars and perform like sugar syrup invert sugars in baking. A little bit goes a long way when it comes to invert sugars. Just play with them in some cookies and you’ll see what I mean.
Domino Sugar’s B Golden Syrup
- 70% Total Sugars
- 36% Sucrose
- 34% Invert
Light Brown Refiners Syrup
- 77.5 Bx
- >30% Sucrose
- <60% Invert
Dark Brown Refiners Syrup
- 75 Bx
- >35% Sucrose
- <48% Invert
Glucose is not called corn syrup in the US. If anything, it will be labelled dextrose. You can get glucose from big box stores like Walmart, Michel’s, and JoAnn’s. Or large tubs from the pastry supply shop. I don’t know where she came up with the notion that glucose is sold as corn syrup here. And I googled for it in Canada as well. Seems it available there too.
Glucose can be made from corn, wheat, or sorghum, while corn is a commonly used starch, it is by no means the exclusive starch. Bakers don’t assume the glucose is corn based. It’s especially important to know the starch source because celiacs cannot eat wheat based glucose; and people with corn allergies cannot eat the corn based glucose. Part of the reason I use cane sugar invert sugars is because I don’t have to worry these issues.