[QUOTE="Norcalbaker59, post: 35923, member: 2340"]Laminated dough has a wide learning curve. What I’ve discovered about laminating dough is butter lock method matters as much as brand of butter and percentage of butter weight to total dough weight. \n\nI much prefer the traditional French envelope lock to the English letter fold. The French lock wraps the dough on all four sides, with seams on top. The English lock leaves seams on two sides. With the French lock, the seams are tightly fused closed as you roll over the dough. So the butter remains tightly encased in dough.\n\nWith the English lock you have to leave a border around the butter block to seal the side seams. I find butter sometimes oozes out of the seams during rolling. For me it’s just not as secure a butter lock. \n\nI perfer Kerrygold brand butter. The brand of butter really matters as pliability is key to rolling the dough without tearing the layers. If layers are torn during rolling, the dough fuses into a mass, and the butter leaks during the bake. Judging pliability based on the temperature of the butter is a rabbit hole as the body (spreadability) of butter is determined by butterfat composition. \n\nButterfat is a mix of crystallized fat and liquid fat. The more crystallized fat in the butter, the harder the butter. Creating the right balance of crystallized and liquid fat is as much nature as it is an art form. In the spring and summer months there is less butterfat in the cows milk. So this lower butterfat butter will be sticky and leak its natural moisture. In the winter months there’s considerably more butterfat. But a high butterfat will result in a hard, brittle and un-spreadable butter.\n\n\nTo counter the adverse effects of nature, the cream is temperature controlled in storage. Then during churning, the cream is actually tempered. Every butter producers has their proprietary method of tempering the cream. Without a doubt, Kerrygold has perfected the art of tempering cream to produce a butter of extraordinary spreadability. Their butter is pliable right out of the refrigerator. \n\n\nThe pliability of Kerrygold takes the guesswork out of the equation. I make my butter block the night before I laminate dough. Then let it sit on the counter for about 5 - 10 minutes before I lock it in. It’s always soft and rolls out easily between the dough. \n\nIn rolling the dough it’s very important that the layers not tear. If the layers inside tear, the butter will leak. So the butter needs to be very pliable. It should rolls out between the layers of dough as a separate layer. \n\n\nWhen rolling the dough I keep a close watch on how much elasticity is developing. With each pass of the rolling pin, I watch for signs of contraction. The minute it starts to show signs of contracting, I immediately stop rolling; I place the dough in the refrigerator for about 15 minutes to let the gluten relax.\n\nAlso with each pass of the rolling pin I check to make sure the dough is not stuck to the counter. If you roll dough that is stuck to the counter, the bottom stays stuck to the counter while the top stretches outward and tears the layers inside. This will cause the dough to fuse in some spots and cause leaking during the bake. \n\n\nOther thoughts in laminated dough...\n\nThe percentage of butterfat content is important. A butterfat of 83% - 85% is best for flavor and layers. I once used Vermont creamery cultured butter. Which is a delicious butter with an extraordinary 86% butterfat. I found it to be too greasy. I don’t what the key is too work with a butterfat over 85%.\n\n\nThere is such a thing as too much butter. In a commercial bakery the total dough weight to the roll-in fat (the butter block) maybe 15% - 25%. This is usually due to cost controls. A low roll-in fat percentage will produce a very bland dough. But a total dough weight to roll-in fat above 50% can be way too rich, difficult to work, and produce a greasy finished product. A master baker will usually use 28% - 30% roll-in fat. \n\n\nI prefer to stay between 30% - 40% butter. The Weekend Bakery recipe is 31% roll-in fat to total dough weight. \n\n\nUnlike other ratios, the roll-in fat is always based on the total the weight, not the weight of the flour. \n\n\nThe protein content in flour is also important. A flour with a protein of 11.5 to 12.8 works best for laminated dough. So King Arthur AP flour or an equivalent would be good. The Gold Medal and Pillsbury all purpose flours are too low in protein to make a good laminated dough. \n\n\nTotal hydration is another factor. On the commercial side they tend to use around 50% hydration. The lower hydration dough produces very distinct layers and that wonderful crispy crust that shatters when you bite in to it. \n\n\nA higher the hydration dough is softer and has less distinct layers. The finished product has a nice moist chew. \n\n\nWhat I like about the Weekend Bakery recipe is it comes in at 56% hydration, so it will produce that shattering crust. And if you use a higher butterfat butter, it will provide plenty enough fat to create a moist bite. \n\n\n\n\nDemonstrates clearly the English fold method\n\n[URL]https://www.chefsteps.com/activities/croissant-dough[/URL]\n\n\n\nA laypersons explanation of butter production\n\n[URL]https://drinc.ucdavis.edu/dairy-foods/butter-some-technology-and-chemistry[/URL]\n\nThis was my first attempt at laminated dough. Fail! The tight crumb is caused by pressing down on the rolling pin and stretching and tearing the layers. This dough is fused. It did not leak in the bake, but it didn’t expand into layers. This has more a cake crumb:(\n[ATTACH=full]1446[/ATTACH] \n\n This was the second attempt. I improved on the laminating process, but under proofed. So the honeycomb layers didn’t fully shape. And the dough was probably a bit too hydrated. While the crust was amazingly crisp, the interior was a bit moist. The third time was a charm. The crust and crumb were very good. I thought I had a photo of the inside of third batch, but don’t see it in my photo library. \n\n[ATTACH=full]1447[/ATTACH] \n\n\nI won’t lie, laminated dough is really hard work. I still have a long way to go to achieve a consistently great finished product. The last time I made it, a few months ago, it was bad. Time before that it was near perfect. So it’s a step forward, a step back. A couple steps forward, a step back.[/QUOTE]\n\nThat is a pretty pretty dough.